Like scars that remain on the skin long after a wound has healed, earthquake fault lines can be traced on Earth's surface long after their initial rupture. Typically, this line of intersection between the area where the fault slips and the ground is more complicated at the surface than at depth. But a new study of the April 4, 2010, El Mayor–Cucapah earthquake in Mexico reveals a reversal of this trend. While the fault involved in the event appeared to be superficially straight, the fault zone is warped and complicated at depth.
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Human induced impacts especially rapid urbanization and the growth of world population are some of the contributing factors for global environmental change. In addition, the world has been facing a complexity of episodic disasters like earthquakes, tsunamis etc along with climate-induced disasters like cyclones, floods and droughts.
The earthquake and tsunami that struck the north-eastern coast of Japan on 11 March, was a tragedy for the thousands of people who lost their lives and livelihoods. From the photos and videos documenting the devastation, it would have been difficult to imagine a worse outcome. Yet, just after the