Glossary: C

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  1. Act of comparing an instrument's measuring accuracy to a known standard. Source: NASA (
  2. The layer formed naturally by the leaves and branches of trees and plants. Source: NASA (
  3. an organic compound present in the cells of all living organisms and a major organic nutrient for human beings; consists of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, and makes up sugar, starch, and cellulose. Source: NASA (
  4. A minor but very important component of the atmosphere, carbon dioxide traps infrared radiation. Atmospheric CO2 has increased about 25 percent since the early 1800s, with an estimated increase of 10 percent since 1958 (burning fossil fuels is the...
  5. The science of mapmaking. Source: NASA (
  6. CCS
    The UK Cabinet Office Civil Contingencies Secretariat (CCS) enhances the UK's ability to prepare for, respond to and recover from emergencies.
  7. Temperature scale proposed by Swedish astronomer Anders in 1742. A mixture of ice and water is zero on the scale; boiling water is designated as 100 degrees. A degree is defined as one hundredth of the difference between the two reference points,...
  8. European Organization for Nuclear Research
  9. A family of compounds of chlorine, fluorine, and carbon, entirely of industrial origin. CFCs include refrigerants, propellants for spray cans (this usage is banned in the U.S., although some other countries permit it) and for blowing plastic-foam...
  10. Chlorophyll is a green compound found in leaves and green stems of plants. The intense green color of chlorophyll is due to its strong absorbencies in the red and blue regions of the spectrum, and because of these absorbencies the light it reflects...
  11. A type of cloud composed of ice crystals and shaped in the form of hairlike filaments. It is formed at an altitude of approximately 29,000 feet. Source: NASA (
  12. The outcome or product of the set of activities conducted by an agency or group of agencies with the aim of preventing, mitigating and responding to the effects of disasters on persons, on property and the environment.
  13. The term 'climate change' is sometimes used to refer to all forms of climatic inconsistency, but because the Earth's climate is never static, the term is more properly used to imply a significant change from one climatic condition to another. In...
  14. A quantitative way of representing the interactions of the atmosphere, oceans, land surface, and ice. Models can range from relatively simple to quite comprehensive. Also see General Circulation Model. Source: NASA (
  15. The five physical components (atmosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, lithosphere, and biosphere) that are responsible for the climate and its variations. Source: NASA (


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