Glossary: T

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  1. A space-to-ground data stream of measured values (including instrument science data, instrument engineering data, and spacecraft engineering data) that does not include command, tracking, computer memory transfer, audio, or video signals. Source:...
  2. A measure of the energy in a substance. The more heat energy in the substance, the higher the temperature. The Earth receives only one two-billionth of the energy the sun produces. Much of the energy that hits the Earth is reflected back into space...
  3. A characteristic that refers to the time at which a given data set was acquired. Source: NASA (http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Glossary)
  4. The total infrared radiation emitted by the Earth and its atmosphere in the temperature range of approximately 200-300K. Because the Earth is nearly a perfect radiator, the radiation from its surface varies as the fourth power of the surface's...
  5. Expression that groups the three communities that UN-SPIDER has to bridge
  6. Of, making use of, producing, or caused by heat. Source: NASA (http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Glossary)
  7. Electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths between about 3 and 25 micrometers. Source: NASA (http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Glossary)
  8. Local storm resulting from warm humid air rising in an unstable environment. Air may start moving upward because of unequal surface heating, the lifting of warm air along a frontal zone, or diverging upper-level winds (these diverging winds draw air...
  9. The technique of graphically representing the exact physical features of a place or region on a map. The physical features of a place or region. Source: NASA (http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Glossary)
  10. A twisting, spinning funnel of low pressure air. The most unpredictable weather event, tornadoes are created during powerful thunderstorms. As a column of warm air rises, air rushes in at ground level and begins to spin. If the storm gathers energy...
  11. The amount of solar energy hitting the top of the Earth’s atmosphere, currently accepted to be about 1,368 watts per square meter. Source: NASA (http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Glossary)
  12. Any one of the less common gases found in the Earth's atmosphere. Nitrogen, oxygen, and argon make up more than 99 percent of the Earth's atmosphere. Other gases, such as carbon dioxide, water vapor, methane, oxides of nitrogen, ozone, and ammonia,...
  13. Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) An orbiting communications satellite, developed by NASA, used to relay data from satellite sensors to ground stations and to track the satellites in orbit. Source: NASA (http://earthobservatory.nasa....
  14. The process in plants by which water is taken up by the roots and released as water vapor by the leaves. The term can also be applied to the quantity of water thus dissipated. Source: NASA (http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Glossary)
  15. Tropical storms generally form in the eastern portion of tropical oceans and track westward. Hurricanes, typhoons, and willy-willies all start out as weak low pressure areas that form over warm tropical waters (e.g., surface water temperature of at...
  16. The lower atmosphere, to a height of 8-15 km above Earth, where temperature generally decreases with altitude, clouds form, precipitation occurs, and convection currents are active. See atmosphere. Source: NASA (http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/...
  17. Ozone that is located in the troposphere and plays a significant role in the greenhouse gas effect and urban smog. Source: NASA (http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Glossary)
  18. Hurricanes in the Western Pacific Ocean. Source: NASA (http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Glossary)