Satellite Technology

Sentinel-1B. Image: ESA–Manuel Pedoussaut. Landsat 8. Image: NASA. Swarm Earth Explorer constellation. Image: ESA-P. Carril.

Among the services that satellites can provide for disaster risk management and emergency response are weather forecasting, remote sensing, geo-positioning, navigation, television and telecommunication. Instruments onboard satellites circling the Earth are designed to cover specific wavelength ranges of the electromagnetic spectrum in order to capture images, atmospheric sounding, satellite communication, geo-positioning and navigation.

Satellites are circling Earth in different orbits depending on the type of application or instrument onboard: A satellite in a geostationary orbit circles the Earth above the equator (0° latitude) synchronously to the Earth's rotation. Its apparently fixed position above a point on the equator at an altitude of more than 36,000 km makes it suitable for communications and regional climate observation of that specific area, with high temporal but low spatial resolution.

Earth observation satellites and satellites for meteorological purposes are located in low Earth orbit at an altitude of typically about 500-800 km and near polar inclination. Due to their orbit, these satellites provide global coverage with comparatively lower temporal, but medium to very high spatial resolution. Due to the high costs of space transportation, constellations of communication or navigation satellites are also placed in Low Earth Orbit.

Earth Observation satellites use either optical or radar sensors to capture images of Earth: Optical sensors for Earth observation are designed to deliver images in either panchromatic spectral format or multispectral format. Panchromatic refers to images in black and white that are reflected from Earth's surface exposed to all visible light. Multispectral images usually include four bands of the electromagnetic spectrum: blue, green, red and near-infrared.

Radar sensors for Earth observation are designed to operate in the microwave range.

Overview on satellite missions and instruments

Hazard types: Meteorological, Severe Storm
Applications:
Launch Date: Nov 1997
Operator: JAXA
Hazard types: Hydrological
Applications:
Launch Date: Aug 1997
Operator: NASA, Geoeye
Hazard types: Harmful Algal Bloom, Climatological, Hydrological
Applications: The overall objective of the mission is dedicated to Earth environmental research: integrated observation of geophysical parameters, global observation of land, ocean and atmospheric processes (ocean color and sea surface temperature). In addition, communication demonstrations are planned for the study (feasibility) of interorbit links, called IOCS (Inter-Orbital Communication Subsystem)
Launch Date: Aug 1996
Operator: JAXA, NASA, NOAA, CNES
Hazard types:
Applications:
Launch Date: Jul 1996
Operator: NASA
Hazard types:
Applications:
Launch Date: Nov 1995
Operator: Canadian Space Agency
Hazard types:
Applications:
Launch Date: Apr 1995
Operator: Eurimage, ESA
Hazard types:
Applications:
Launch Date: Apr 1994
Operator: NASA, NOAA, CIMSS GOES
Hazard types:
Applications: Earth observation
Launch Date: Oct 1993
Operator: NASA, NOAA, USGS
Hazard types: Drought, Glacial Lake Outburst, Landslide, Earthquake, Flood, Forest Fire, Mass Movement, Tsunami, Volcanic Eruption
Applications: Earth observation
Launch Date: Sep 1993
Operator: Spot Image

Pages

For additional information, please visit the following external resources:

  • European Space Agency's (ESA) satellite mission database on the EOPortal database (link)
  • Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) and ESA database (link)

External tutorials on satellite technologies and Earth observation

Below you will find links to external handbooks, guides and tutorials on satellite technology.

Guides: Earth observation applications

  • CEOS Earth Observation Handbook: Satellite Earth Observations in Support of Disaster Risk Reduction (link)
  • CEOS Earth Observation Handbook: Satellite Earth Observations in Support of Climate Information Challenges (link)
  • CEOS Earth Observation Handbook: Satellite Earth Observations in Support of the Sustainable Development Goals (link)

Guides: Introduction to remote sensing

  • Introduction to radar remote sensing of the remote sensing education initiative (SAREDU) of DLR (link)
  • Tutorial on fundamentals of remote sensing of CNRS (link)
  • Tutorial on radar polarimetry (CNRS) (link)
  • Tutorial on satellite data reception (link)
  • Image interpretation quiz (link)

Guides: Didactic material on satellite technology for children and schools

  • EDUSPACE of ESA aims to provide secondary school students and teachers with a learning and teaching tool. It is meant to be an entry point for space image data, and, in particular, to a widespread visibility of Earth observation applications for education and training. (link)
  • Watching over our Planet from Space - A kit for kids (CNRS) (link)
  • Remote Sensing in schools (University of Bonn and DLR) (link)
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