Drought

Sri Lanka - Institutional Strengthening Mission

UN-SPIDER conducted a Institutional Strengthening Mission in Sri Lanka from 24 to 28 April 2017. Th ISM was a follow-up to the technical advisory mission to Sri Lanka in 2011. Both the original mission and the follow-up activity were hosted by the Ministry of Disaster Management of Sri Lanka and its associated Disaster Management Centre.

Dates: 

Mon, 24/04/2017 to Fri, 28/04/2017

Host Institution: 

Sri Lanka Disaster Management Centre

Country/Region: 

Main Hazards: 

Mission Profile: 

As part of the ISM, UN-SPIDER and the Disaster Management Centre conducted a three-day training course at the recommendation of UN-SPIDER for the members of the rapid mapping inter-institutional team established by the Centre. The mission also provided an opportunity to participate in the first meeting of the Advisory Board for the National Risk Assessment Project that the Disaster Management Centre was conducting. In addition, the mission enabled to further its efforts to provide technical advisory support to Sri Lanka; to make government agencies, universities and non-governmental organizations aware of the UN-SPIDER knowledge portal and its contents, including specific recommended practices relevant to Sri Lanka; to raise awareness of the usefulness of the Standard Vegetation Index and the Vegetation Condition Index in drought early warning efforts. Following the successful model of the Dominican Republic and countries in Central America, UN-SPIDER recommended the establishment of a technical inter-institutional team that could focus its efforts in the processing of satellite imagery to generate relevant and timely geospatial information. 

Disaster type: 

Ethiopia - Institutional Strengthening Mission

Upon the request of the Government of Ethiopia, UN-SPIDER carried out a Institutional Strengthening Mission to Addis Ababa from 26 to 30 August 2019 to support the country in making use of the benefits of space technology for drought early warning. The team of experts from UN-SPIDER and the Centre for Remote Sensing of Land Surfaces (ZFL) at the University of Bonn, a UN-SPIDER Regional Support Office, met a wide range of stakeholders in the country to identify how space-based information is currently used in the context of disaster management and drought monitoring in particular, and to make recommendations as to how to further strengthen the use of space technologies in these areas.

Dates: 

Mon, 26/08/2019 to Fri, 30/08/2019

Host Institution: 

Ethiopian Space Science and Technology Institute (ESSTI)

Country/Region: 

Main Hazards: 

Mission Team: 

A team of experts from UN-SPIDER and the Centre for Remote Sensing of Land Surfaces (ZFL) at the University of Bonn, a UN-SPIDER Regional Support Office

Mission Profile: 

As part of the week-long mission, UN-SPIDER and the Ethiopian Space Science and Technology Institute (ESSTI) convened a national workshop on “Drought Monitoring, Forecasting and Prediction in Ethiopia Using Satellite-driven and In-situ-based Measured Products”. The goal of the workshop was to discuss the establishment of a drought monitoring and prediction center in Ethiopia in order to develop integrated meteorological, hydrological and agricultural drought forecasting services. It also seeked to strengthen scientific networking in the research areas of drought and capitalize on Ethiopia’s effort to utilize space products for combating recurrent drought of the country. The workshop brought together nearly 40 participants from a wide range of national and international institutions addressing questions related to monitoring of natural hazards; space and geospatial information; risk and disaster management; and agriculture and food security.

Disaster type: 

Participating UN-SPIDER Regional Support Office: 

Tunisia - Technical Advisory Mission

At the request of, and in coordination with the National Civil Protection Office of Tunisia, UN-SPIDER is conducting a Technical Advisory Mission to Tunisia from 4 to 6 March 2020 to identify the needs of the country to fully take advantage of space-based information for disaster management. In order to discuss the use of space-based information for risk and disaster management to subsequently make recommendations on improvements, the expert team meets with key disaster management authorities in the country.

The mission is conducted with the support of experts from the Algerian Space Agency (ASAL); the Romanian Space Agency (ROSA); the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA); the National Observatory of Athens (NOA); and an expert on the Copernicus Emergency Management Service. The mission team is also benefiting from the support of the Chief of Space Applications of the United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs.

As part of the mission, the team of experts will visit several institutions including the National Office of Civil Protection; the Directorate General for Forests of the Ministry of Agriculture; the Faculty of Sciences of Tunis, University of Tunis El Manar; the National Agronomic Institute of Tunisia; the National Institute of Meteorology; as well as at the Ministry of Local Affairs and Environment. Meetings will also be conducted with representatives of the National Cartographic and Remote Sensing Centre of Tunisia and other organizations. In addition, the TAM team will meet the United Nations Country Team in Tunisia, which supports disaster management efforts in the country.

During the TAM, a workshop with over 20 participants from nine institutions will take place in order to present the UN-SPIDER programme to Tunisian counterparts involved in disaster management, and encourage inter-institutional cooperation and sharing of geospatial information among them.

UN-SPIDER aims at ensuring all countries have the capacity to use all types of space-based information to support risk and disaster management efforts. To make sure that all interested stakeholders can benefit from this information in the most effective way possible, UN-SPIDER provides Technical Advisory Support to Member States through missions such as this one.

The Algerian Space Agency (ASAL), the Romanian Space Agency (ROSA) and the National Observatory of Athens (NOA) are UN-SPIDER Regional Support Office.

On request of the Tunisian Government and immediately after the technical advisory mission, UN-SPIDER conducted a three-day hands-on training on the use of Sentinel-1 radar data for flood mapping. In order to further strengthen the capacity of Tunisia to use space technologies for disaster management, UN-SPIDER will continue to encourage the participation of Tunisian institutions in its conferences and expert meetings. In addition, together with its regional and international partners, UN-SPIDER will provide training on forest fire mapping in the medium term. 

Dates: 

Wed, 04/03/2020 to Fri, 06/03/2020

Host Institution: 

National Office for Civil Protection (ONPC), Ministry of the Interior of Tunisia

Country/Region: 

Mission Team: 

  • Alexandru Badea, Romanian Space Agency (ROSA)
  • Kamel Tichouiti, Algerian Space Agency (ASAL)
  • Alexia Tsouni, National Observatory of Athens (NOA)
  • Francoise Villette, Expert on Earth observation and disaster management, and on Copernicus EMS
  • Luc St-Pierre, United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs (UNOOSA)
  • Coen Bussink, UN-SPIDER (Head of Delegation)
  • Radu Botez, UN-SPIDER

Mission Profile: 

Three-day mission with a stakeholder workshop that brought together 21 participants from 13 Tunisian institutions, in addition to the mission team.

Mission Findings: 

During the mission, the team was able to observe the common use of GIS by the consulted institutions, including ONPC, for the visualization of statistics on risks and occurrences of disasters. In addition, some institutions already regularly use satellite images, for example to analyze burnt areas after forest fires, while universities provide advanced training in geomatics. With regard to disaster risk reduction, space data and technologies are included in a draft DRR strategy, which is currently in the process of being adopted. By becoming an authorized user of the International Charter “Space and Major Disasters” and by benefiting from maps floods in the area of Nabeul in 2018 created by the Copernicus Emergency Management Service (Copernicus EMS), Tunisia is mobilizing relevant international networks and mechanisms to access information products based on satellite data during disasters.

Mission Recommendations: 

The recommendations made by the team aim to further encourage the institutionalization of the use and sharing of satellite data and images through disaster risk management in Tunisia. The recommendations are described in more detail in the corresponding sections of this report and are in short:

Policy and coordination

  • Strengthen the legal framework and collaboration for geospatial information
  • Finalize the project for the creation of a national infrastructure for geographic information (INIG)

Access, availability and sharing of data

  • Create an archive of available satellite images and accelerate their exploitation for disaster management purposes
  • To deepen risk analysis in the territory by expanding and integrating the data repository and the tools used to publish the data more effectively
  • Prepare information for rapid response disaster mapping
  • Strengthen disaster risk reduction through mapping exercises

Capacity-building and institutional strengthening

  • Ensure the presence of adequate human resources
  • Use local and international geomatics training resources for capacity building 

Strengthening early warning

  • Establish a legal framework for early warning
  • Ensure coordinated and cooperative early warning
  • Strengthen emergency response
  • Make field data collection more efficient and accurate
  • Use international mechanisms and regional partnerships to obtain relevant maps and satellite imagery during disasters
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PDF icon Tunisia TAM - Data sources booklet969.11 KB

Ecuador - Institutional Strengthening Mission

As part of the technical advisory support it provides to countries worldwide, UN-SPIDER carried out an Institutional Strengthening Mission to Republic of Ecuador from 8-12 April 2019 upon the request of the government. This activity was jointly organized by the United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs (UNOOSA), through its United Nations Platform for space-based information for disaster management and emergency response (UN-SPIDER) and the National Risk and Emergency Management Service of Ecuador. The Military Geographic Institute of Ecuador, the Agustín Codazzi Geographic Institute of Colombia (IGAC) and the Federal University of Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil supported the mission.

Dates: 

Mon, 08/04/2019 to Fri, 12/04/2019

Host Institution: 

National Risk and Emergency Management Service of Ecuador

Country/Region: 

Main Hazards: 

Mission Team: 

Representatives from UN-SPIDER, the Military Geographic Institute of Ecuador, the Agustín Codazzi Geographic Institute of Colombia and the Federal University of Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. 

Mission Profile: 

The mission was a follow-up activity to the UN-SPIDER Technical Advisory Mission (TAM) conducted in October 2009 at the request of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Commerce and Integration (MRECI), as Ecuador is exposed to a variety of geologic and hydro-meteorological hazards, including many active volcanoes. In addition, it is exposed to climatic events such as El Niño and La Niña.

During the five-day mission, UN-SPIDER carried out a training programme on "Analysis of satellite images to monitor floods, droughts and forest fires". The programme brought together various institutions that were convened by the National Risk and Emergency Management Service. The objective was to train participants in the fundamentals, methods of remote sensing and digital processing of satellite images to obtain useful information for monitoring floods, droughts and forest fires.

Disaster type: 

Participating UN-SPIDER Regional Support Office: 

Ghana - Institutional Strengthening Mission

As a follow-up activitity to its 2013 Technical Advisory Mission to the Western African country, UN-SPIDER conducted a week-long Institutional Strengthening Mission (ISM) to Ghana. The mission followed an invitation of the Government of Ghana and was hosted by the National Disaster Management Organization (NADMO).

Dates: 

Mon, 15/10/2018 to Fri, 19/10/2018

Host Institution: 

National Disaster Management Organisation (NADMO)

Country/Region: 

Main Hazards: 

Mission Team: 

Organizers UN-SPIDER and National Disaster Management Organisation (NADMO)
   
Participants Ghana National Fire Service (GNFS)
  Centre for Remote Sensing and Geographic Information System (CERSGIS)
  Ghana Meteorological Department (G-MET)
  Ghana Survey Department (GSD) 
  Ghana Armed Forces (GAF)
  Ghana Irrigation Development Authority (GIDA)
  Hydrological Services Department (HSD)
  Ghana Police Service (GPS)
  Water Resources Commission (WRC)
  Ghana Geological Survey Authority
  Health Services Department Ghana 

 

Mission Profile: 

The aims of the UN-SPIDER Institutional Strengthening Mission (ISM) to Ghana were

The mission consisted of two parts:

Inter-institutional Seminar

The seminar brought together nearly 50  participants from several government agencies in including NADMO, the Ghana Geological Survey Authority, the Survey Mapping Division, the Police Department, the Land Use Spatial Planning Authority, the Ghana Space Science and Technology Institute, the Ministry of Food and Agriculture, the Ghana Irrigation Authority, the Water Resources Commission, the Ghana Armed Forces and the National Fire Service as well as the Centre for Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems of the University of Ghana.

The seminar allowed participants to exchange information on their activities, on joint efforts with NADMO and on the use of remote sensing and geographic information systems in their routine tasks.

Training course

The training course was organized and attended by 25 participants from several government agencies and the University of Ghana. Participants were trained in the use of specific step-by-step procedures to process satellite imagery to map the extent of floods using as an example the recent floods in the White Volta River in the northern region of Ghana. Participants were also trained on the use of another step-by-step procedure to map the comparative impacts of droughts on vegetation in the central region of Ghana. These procedures make use of open satellite imagery and open source software and will enhance the capability of government agencies to generate maps useful to monitor floods and droughts as well as in early warning systems. UN-SPIDER took the opportunity to present to NADMO more than 40 gigabytes of optical and radar, satellite imagery and maps it generated for this mission, covering the entire Republic of Ghana in case of droughts.

 

Mission Outcome: 

  • A proposal was successfully made to the International Charter Space and Major Disasters for NADMO to become an Authorised User of the International Charter Space and Major Disasters
  • The establishment of an inter-institutional remote sensing and disaster management team called “The Ghana eaRth obsErvATion Technologies Team (GREAT Team)” which will help in designing and managing an Integrated  Decision Support System (IDeSS) for disaster risk management and emergency response
  • Participants of the four-day training were able to generate their own maps of flood extents which recently occurred on the White Volta River, using radar images from Sentinel-1
  • Participants generated more than 400 time series maps from MODIS Terra data for drought monitoring using the Standard Vegetation Index (SVI) and Vegetation Condition Index (VCI) methods

Mission Outlook

  • NADMO to carry out two additional training courses with the support of the Ghana Space Science and Technology Institute and the Centre for Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems of the University of Ghana to strengthen the skills of the team. These two training courses should give team members a better overview of the software tools used in the procedures (SNAP software developed by the European Space Agency and R Studio).  
  • The technical Inter-Institutional Team to start the routine generation of maps of the Vegetation Index or the Standard Vegetation Index to track areas that may be affected by drought and incorporate this procedure into the drought early warning system.
  • The Technical Inter-Institutional Team to elaborate additional maps of the floods that took place in August and September 2018 and their evolution and discuss how to use this historical information to improve disaster preparedness efforts on the basis of this and other floods.
  • NADMO to assess the feasibility of working with UN-SPIDER and Airbus in the generation of maps of areas susceptible to landslides and to tidal waves or storm surges.
  • NADMO to complete the steps regarding the incorporation of NADMO as an Authorised User of the International Charter Space and Major Disasters.

How to measure SFDRR target B5 - estimation of the number of people affected by drought in Eastern Cape, South Africa

English

Teaser Recommended Practice: 

This practice aims at providing an alternative way to assess indicator B5 of the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction (SFDRR) if respective loss and damage data are not available. In the context of the EvIDENz project, the Sendai indicator B-5 has been measured for the example of agricultural drought and the output is the number of agriculture-dependent-people whose livelihoods were disrupted or destroyed, attributed to agricultural drought. Thus, this practice shows how to use vegetation dynamics from MODIS satellite imagery in combination with land-use data, agricultural statistics and population census data to inform the indicator B5 for the example of the Eastern Cape province in South Africa. It consists of two parts (and two R codes): a drought hazard assessment based on the Vegetation Condition Index (VCI) provided by the ZFL and the derivation of the indicator used to measure the number of people affected by agricultural drought hazard which has been provided by UNU-EHS. The procedure follows the technical guidance of UNDRR.

Flowchart Recommended Practices: 

Logo 2: 

Objective: 

The objective of this practice is to showcase how the combination of remote sensing and statistical data can be used to inform selected SFDRR indicators. The technical guidance by UNDRR provides support for the Member States in the operationalization of the indicators to measure progress towards the achievement of the targets of the SFDRR.

In order to calculate Sendai indicator B5 (Number of people whose livelihoods were disrupted or destroyed, attributed to disasters) the following sub-indicators and methodology are proposed for measuring the number of people whose activities required for securing a means of living or as their source of income has been affected:

  • B5a: Number of workers in agriculture with crops damaged or destroyed by disasters (estimated using sub-indicator C-2Ca, described in the Technical Guidance for Target C).
  • B5b: Number of workers responsible for, and owners of livestock lost attributed to disasters (estimated using sub-indicator C-2La).
  • B5c: Number of workers employed in productive assets facilities (such as Industrial, commercial, services, etc.) damaged or destroyed by disasters.

The technical note on data and methodology to estimate the number of affected people is adjusted to the Eastern Cape and drought context. Only indicators B5a and B5b are considered. Hence, Parts A and B focus on the drought hazard assessment whereas Parts C and D focus on the indicator measurement by combining the drought hazard with information on land-use, as well as agricultural statistics and census data to estimate the number of people affected by drought.

Disaster Cycle Phase: 

  • Recovery & Reconstruction

Main Hazards: 

  • Drought

Test Site: 

The processing chain was developed for the province of Eastern Cape in South Africa as a partner country of the EvIDENz project. Eastern Cape is located in the south east of the country with a coast on its east which lines southward.

Context: 

The Eastern Cape gets gradually wetter from west to east. The west is mostly semiarid karoo, except in the far south, which is temperate rainforest in the Tsitsikamma region. The east is grassland on hills, interrupted by deep gorges with intermittent forest.

The agricultural system in Eastern Cape is divided into commercial and communal farming: in contrast to the mainly small-scale communal (subsistence) farming stands the large-scale commercial farming (of mainly white farmers), which usually comprises technologically more advanced agriculture on farms larger than 1000ha. Communal farming is mainly found in the Eastern parts of the province.

Applicability: 

The processing chain was developed for the South African context which makes it most applicable for this setting. Depending on (1) the cloud cover, part A and B could also be adjusted to be used in other contexts and depending on (2) data availability, part C and B could be reproduced in another context as well.

Bibliography

Walz, Yvonne, Annika Min, Karen Dall, Moses Duguru, Juan-Carlos Villagran de Leon, Valerie Graw, Olena Dubovyk, Zita Sebesvari, Andries Jordaan, and Joachim Post. “Monitoring Progress of the Sendai Framework Using a Geospatial Model: The Example of People Affected by Agricultural Droughts in Eastern Cape, South Africa.” Progress in Disaster Science, 5 (January 1, 2020): 100062. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2590061719300626?via%...

 

Nepal - Technical Advisory Mission

At the request of the Ministry of Home Affairs (MoHA) and with the technical support of the International Center for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD), UN-SPIDER carried out a Technical Advisory Mission (TAM) to Nepal to evaluate the current and potential use of space based information in all aspects of disaster management and offering recommendations to strengthen disaster risk management and emergency response in the country.

Dates: 

Mon, 31/07/2017 to Fri, 04/08/2017

Host Institution: 

Ministry of Home Affairs (MoHA)

Country/Region: 

Main Hazards: 

Mission Team: 

The team of 11 experts, under the leadership of the United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs (UNOOSA)/UN-SPIDER), visited NEPAL from 31 July to 4 August 2017. The mission team represented the following organizations: UNOOSA/UN-SPIDER, ICIMOD, Chinese Academy of Sciences, United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UNOCHA), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), Center for Interdisciplinary Geospatial Technology of Delta State University, United Nations Affiliated Centre for Space Science and Technology Education for Asia and the Pacific hosted by Indian Space Research Organisation and DigitalGlobe, Singapore.

Mission Profile: 

During the five-day mission, the mission team visited key stakeholder agencies to carry out in-depth discussions on the current and potential use of space based information in all aspects of disaster management and offering recommendations to strengthen the disaster risk management and emergency response in the country. A one-day workshop was conducted as a part of this mission, which was attended by more than 65 participants. On the fifth day, the mission team compiled and presented their observations and recommendations to high-level officials of the MoHA, United Nations Resident Coordinator’s Office (UN-RCO) and other key stakeholders.

Mission Findings: 

Policy

  • Many agencies visited have incorporated GIS and remote sensing in their activities. However it seems rather ad hoc and not guided by an overall policy for using space based technology for DRR and DM.
  • Data provision from different agencies is fragmented and lacks clear policy and responsibilities for data generation, maintenance and update.
  • Critical is the missing NSDI and related activities. Access to data due to inadequate policy framing has been highlighted several times as a crucial issue to advance DRR related activities.
  • National Strategy for Disaster Risk Management NSDRM 2009 Priority Action 2 (Identify, assess and monitor disaster risks and strengthen early warning System) relates to “Establish and institutionalize authentic, and open GIS-based Disaster Information Management System (DIMS) at all levels).
  • Natural Calamity (Relief) Act, 1982 is under revision which provides opportunities to integrate the use of space based information in line with the Sendai Framework.

Data availability and sharing

  • ICIMOD is well placed to access earth observation data through SERVIR, Sentinel Asia and other programmes. Some agencies have UAVs.
  • There is no national agency responsible for driving remote sensing based progammes.
  • Baseline GIS data is available, although it is not clear how data is shared, used and its quality. This restricts interoperability among the GIS layers developed by various organizations.
  • This data gap is filled with open street map data and other separate initiatives.
  • A lot of valuable geospatial data is available and more are being collected, however, there is a lack of data standards, metadata and data accessibility mainly due to lack of policy guidelines, appropriate software and hardware issues.
  • Departments are unable or not forthcoming to share data. Data is not posted publicly and is usually shared on an ad-hoc and informal basis due to lack of policy guidelines.
  • There are no targeted missions to generate hazard, and risk maps. Such gap is filled by many non government actors. Use of EO based input is minimal.

Capacity Building and Institutional Strengthening

  • CSSTEAP has over 100 alumni in Nepal trained in RS/GIS, SatCom, SatMetetc. Several others are trained in the other institutions.
  • Trained staff cannot make use of their capacities due to limitations in policy framing (except Nepalese Army and APF).
  • Capacity building should be guided by a strategy that addresses long-term capacity building needs;
  • Additionally danger exists that staff cannot upgrade and refresh their capacities as they are losing the connection to state-of-the-art knowledge.
  • Government institutions involved in geospatial technologies have not adequately planned for the required software, hardware, and skills maintenance needed to keep systems running.
  • Again the situation is better outside the governmental intuitions -especially with very high level capacities at ICIMOD, as well as different NGOs.

Mission Recommendations: 

Policy

  • Integrate space based and geospatial information while the following policy documents are revised: DM Act, National Strategy for Disaster Risk Management (NSDRM), 2009 and National Disaster Response Framework (NDRF), 2013
  • Create a national data policy that includes data standards (including geospatial data), which points to a clear need for National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI);
  • Develop guidelines for a disaster inventory database and clearly spell out, who will provide services, who will use them, and for what purpose.
  • To ensure the efficient use of resources in support of DRR, there should be a department or entity that is entirely dedicated to coordination. ;
  • In the meantime, there can still be coordination between agencies producing and using data for disaster management and emergency response. MoHA can convene an information management or GIS working group. This group will coordinate data management activities, share data, develop standards, and work toward there being no duplication of efforts.
  • Army, APF, NGOs (KLL, Nepal GIS Society), Survey Department and ICIMOD are important players.

Data availability and sharing

  • “One Nation-One Map” policy to promote the preparation of base line thematic layers including hazard and risk maps at highest possible resolution and scale by respective agencies in a time bound manner.
  • Policy document and related actions to convince key ministries to invest in earth observation and geospatial information, which leads to faster economic growth.
  • Data access should be explicitly addressed in high level policy or strategy. Then technology can easily be put in place to facilitate data access.
  • Organisations like DWIDM, DHM, DMG needs clear mandate and strategic guidance from MoHA to undertake hazard/risk mapping.
  • A portal for discovering national data assets is needed, regardless of whether or not data may be shared freely, for cost, or not at all. This will reduce duplication of effort.
  • Overarching plan to generate spatial data is needed (land use, soil, hydro-geomorphology, water resources, socio-economic etc.)

Capacity Building and Institutional Strengthening

  • Capacity building should be guided by a strategy that addresses long-term capacity building needs;
  • Use of in-house institutions to offer regular capacity building programmes focused on space technology applications in specific themes and upcoming innovations;
  • Develop technological capacity or set up a dedicated centre that would provide technical support to NEOC; and
  • Ensure trained staffs remain in their positions within the government department allowing them to focus on specific technical skills to leverage remote sensing and GIS in support of DRR and DM.
  • Capacity existing in other institutions such as ICIMOD can be used as a valuable resource to maintain capacity within the government.
  • Explore opportunities for Public-Private Partnership

Strengthening Disaster Risk Reduction

  • Critical role by NEOC in facilitating hazard, and risk maps using Earth observation;
  • National mission guiding the use of geospatial technology in disaster management include inventory, monitoring, spatial analysis and modeling and developing GIS-based tools for hazard, vulnerability and risk analysis.
  • Establishment of a technical centre within NEOC which can be partly manned by staff from stakeholder ministries. This centre should be able to coordinate and use information generated by all stakeholder agencies during all stages of disaster management; and
  • For disaster risk reduction, preparation of hazard zonation maps, early warning and mainstreaming guide lines are considered as key areas to focus.
  • DRR should be a key component of sustainable development (SDG) and integrate climate change adaptation.

Strengthening early warning and preparedness

  • The existing early warning system (EWS) should be strengthened by building expertise on advanced applications of Earth observation (reference ICIMOD efforts);
  • There is an urgent need to build capacities for multi-hazard use of EWS, where information (thematic maps, risk maps etc.) generated from satellite images can be integrated with early warning information; and
  • Strengthen capacities in providing more accurate and localized early warning information that can be used for local disaster preparedness and response at the community level.

Strengthening emergency response

  • Develop routine mechanism to use Earth observation to provide situational awareness to support NEOC and ensure coordinated and effective response during emergencies;
  • NEOC should become an Authorised User of the International Charter for Space and utilized Sentinel Asia facility at ICIMOD;
  • Prepare SOPs for acquisition and utilisation of space based information during emergency response (Reference: WG in UN-SPIDER Conference 2015)
  • The training and mock drills on routine basis to enable stakeholders to make good use of international support
  • Information sharing channels during emergencies should be clarified in the legal and strategic documents developed by MoHA
  • Cross train geospatial professionals with DM –the two are largely treated as independent functions.
  • Basic map reading and land navigation skills must be taught across all entities involved with DM, particular within the response community
  • Prepare and implement a geospatial strategy and NSDI under leadership of MoHA, in close collaboration with main players;
  • Develop an institutional capacity development strategy;
  • Prepare and implement a plan to address Priority 1 of Sendai framework by developing methods identify risks, hazards and vulnerabilities using geoinformation; and
  • Prepare and implement a plan to address Priority 4 of Sendai framework for Disaster Reduction: 2015-2030 by developing SOP to use earth observation for enhancing disaster preparedness for effective response.

Actions identified during debriefing at Ministry of Home Affairs on the 5th day of the TAM

  1. Re-start planning to develop an NSDI. Under the leadership of the Survey Dept, but with the active participation of all concerned agencies and partners. (governmental and Non-governmental agencies)
    1. Strengthen DRR portal to host relevant data related to DRR
  2. TAM to suggest innovative approaches in capacity building for mainstreaming Space tech in DRR and DR
  3. Enhance existing partnerships to maximize the use of space tech at EOC.
  4. Suggest mechanisms for using space technology to identify and address vulnerability. (focus on more accessible technology –not high-tech)
  5. TAM to recommend ways to strengthen DRR, perhaps through strengthened partnership with academic partnerships.
  6. TAM to share our observations on capacity of the different agencies of the GoN.
  7. UN to explore ways to support the GoNin efforts to improve the use of space technology for DRR.
  8. Support awareness raising activities at the very senior government level on the benefits of GIS and remote sensing in DRR (and beyond). TAM can share lessons learned
  9. TAM to suggest ways to better manage and use information in support of emergency response operations. (i.e review DRR Portal)
  10. Establish an executive and technical committee under the leadership of NEOC. (or the to-be-established NDMC)
    1. Executive committee to look at policy and mandate issues
    2. Technical committee to coordinate data collection activities, identify data sources, and establish data standards and guidance.

Expert Mission to El Salvador in July 2016

Dates: 

Mon, 11/07/2016 to Wed, 13/07/2016

Host Institution: 

Ministry of Foreign Affairs of El Salvador

Country/Region: 

Main Hazards: 

Mission Expert: 

Juan Carlos Villagran de Leon, UN-SPIDER

Mission Profile: 

The mission was conducted as part of the activities of the project entitled "Strengthening Early Warning Systems for Drought" (SEWS-D).   The mission was used to discuss advances regarding the project, and to conduct the first meeting of the technical, inter-institutional team that UN-SPIDER suggested during its Technical Advisory Mission that was conducted in April 2014.   The proposed team is being established by the General Directorate of Civil Protection of El Salvador.

The opprtunity was used to update members of the Civil Protection Directorate and of the Environmental Observatory of the Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources regarding updates in the Recommended Practices on the drought indices that have been developed by UN-SPIDER and to provide the updated maps of the SVi and the VCI.

Mission Outcome: 

The mission facilitated:

- The establishment of the technical, interinstitutional team to contribute to disaster risk reduction, preparedness and emergency response efforts through the generation of space-based information;

- The delivery of updated maps of the VCI and the SVI, which now include the procedure to mask out those pixels which are covered by clouds;

- Follow-up efforts in El Salvador regarding the SEWS-D project.

Recommended Practice: Drought monitoring using the Standard Vegetation Index (SVI)

English

Teaser Recommended Practice: 

Drought monitoring is an important component in drought early warning systems. This practice shows how to monitor the impacts of meteorological drought on natural vegetation using MODIS optical satellite imagery. The practice has been developed in the context of the SEWS-D project. It is similar to the practice developed by the Iranian Space Agency but it proposes the use of a different index (SVI instead of VCI). The practice was developed by the Universidad Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM) in Brasil. (The above image shows the standard vegetation index based on EVI for El Salvador on 28 July 2014.)

Flowchart Recommended Practices: 

Objective: 

The purpose of this recommended practice is to monitor impacts of meteorological drought on natural vegetation (rain fed, range land & forest).

Disaster Cycle Phase: 

  • Preparedness

Main Hazards: 

  • Drought

Test Site: 

The test site includes several countries in the dry corridor of Central America. The practice has also been tested in Dominican Republic and Brazil.

Context: 

In the last two decades, Central American countries have experienced more frequent and intense droughts. These droughts have manifested themselves in arid areas of this region, and have a greater impact on subsistence farmers. The worse effects and impacts have taken place when an international stressor (extreme reduction in the price of an agricultural export crop such as coffee in the world markets; or the substantial increase in the price of oil in the international markets) coincides with a severe drought. Governments have identified a certain geographic area in this region as the one most prone to the effects of droughts, which now spans selected areas in six Central American countries as indicated in the map below. This is called the “Dry Corridor” of Central America.

Applicability: 

Figure: Dry corridor of Central America

The methodology as such can be applied globally. However, the choice of the months of the MODIS data will vary depending on the timing of the vegetation period.

Recommended Practice: Exposure Mapping

English

Teaser Recommended Practice: 

Mapping the extent of a natural hazard (e.g., assessing areas with a high risk) or disaster is a first step in disaster risk management and emergency response. Subsequently, exposure mapping enables the estimation of the impact of hazards or disasters, for example, regarding the number of affected inhabitants or infrastructure. The following practice shows the use of Quantum GIS to analyze a disaster extent map in combination with auxiliary data such as population or land cover data.

Flowchart Recommended Practices: 

Related Software: 

Objective: 

The objective of this practice is to estimate the exposure of a natural hazard or disaster. As an example, the number of inhabitants affected by a flood event is estimated. The joint use of the flood mask, created by the Recommended Practice: Flood Mapping, and the WorldPop data set constitutes a viable solution to quickly estimate the impact of the flood regarding the population. The proposed methodology is a universal practice which combines a simple approach based on open-source software and free of charge data together with a beforehand created map covering the extend of a natural hazard or disaster.

Disaster Cycle Phase: 

  • Mitigation
  • Preparedness
  • Recovery & Reconstruction
  • Relief & Response

Main Hazards: 

  • Drought
  • Earthquake
  • Extreme Temperature
  • Forest Fire
  • Flood
  • Insect Infestation
  • Mass Movement
  • Pollution
  • Severe Storm
  • Tsunami
  • Volcanic Eruption

Test Site: 

Malawi

Context: 

The practice was applied in the context of the flood event in Malawi in January 2015. Since December 2014, heavy rains affected Malawi causing rivers to overflow. The flooded area in this analysis covered a part of the Nsanje district around Chiromo.

Applicability: 

This practice can be applied globally. Besides of the beforehand created hazard or disaster extent map, the practice does not need specific near real-time data as it is based on population, land cover, or other auxiliary geodata archives. The WorldPop data set provides population data for Africa, Asia as well as Central and South America with a spatial resolution of 100 meters. The Landcover30 data base provides global landcover data with a spatial resolution of about 30 meters.

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