Forest Fire

Tunisia - Technical Advisory Mission

At the request of, and in coordination with the National Civil Protection Office of Tunisia, UN-SPIDER is conducting a Technical Advisory Mission to Tunisia from 4 to 6 March 2020 to identify the needs of the country to fully take advantage of space-based information for disaster management. In order to discuss the use of space-based information for risk and disaster management to subsequently make recommendations on improvements, the expert team meets with key disaster management authorities in the country.

The mission is conducted with the support of experts from the Algerian Space Agency (ASAL); the Romanian Space Agency (ROSA); the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA); the National Observatory of Athens (NOA); and an expert on the Copernicus Emergency Management Service. The mission team is also benefiting from the support of the Chief of Space Applications of the United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs.

As part of the mission, the team of experts will visit several institutions including the National Office of Civil Protection; the Directorate General for Forests of the Ministry of Agriculture; the Faculty of Sciences of Tunis, University of Tunis El Manar; the National Agronomic Institute of Tunisia; the National Institute of Meteorology; as well as at the Ministry of Local Affairs and Environment. Meetings will also be conducted with representatives of the National Cartographic and Remote Sensing Centre of Tunisia and other organizations. In addition, the TAM team will meet the United Nations Country Team in Tunisia, which supports disaster management efforts in the country.

During the TAM, a workshop with over 20 participants from nine institutions will take place in order to present the UN-SPIDER programme to Tunisian counterparts involved in disaster management, and encourage inter-institutional cooperation and sharing of geospatial information among them.

UN-SPIDER aims at ensuring all countries have the capacity to use all types of space-based information to support risk and disaster management efforts. To make sure that all interested stakeholders can benefit from this information in the most effective way possible, UN-SPIDER provides Technical Advisory Support to Member States through missions such as this one.

The Algerian Space Agency (ASAL), the Romanian Space Agency (ROSA) and the National Observatory of Athens (NOA) are UN-SPIDER Regional Support Office.

On request of the Tunisian Government and immediately after the technical advisory mission, UN-SPIDER conducted a three-day hands-on training on the use of Sentinel-1 radar data for flood mapping. In order to further strengthen the capacity of Tunisia to use space technologies for disaster management, UN-SPIDER will continue to encourage the participation of Tunisian institutions in its conferences and expert meetings. In addition, together with its regional and international partners, UN-SPIDER will provide training on forest fire mapping in the medium term. 

Dates: 

Wed, 04/03/2020 to Fri, 06/03/2020

Host Institution: 

National Office for Civil Protection (ONPC), Ministry of the Interior of Tunisia

Country/Region: 

Mission Team: 

  • Alexandru Badea, Romanian Space Agency (ROSA)
  • Kamel Tichouiti, Algerian Space Agency (ASAL)
  • Alexia Tsouni, National Observatory of Athens (NOA)
  • Francoise Villette, Expert on Earth observation and disaster management, and on Copernicus EMS
  • Luc St-Pierre, United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs (UNOOSA)
  • Coen Bussink, UN-SPIDER (Head of Delegation)
  • Radu Botez, UN-SPIDER

Mission Profile: 

Three-day mission with a stakeholder workshop that brought together 21 participants from 13 Tunisian institutions, in addition to the mission team.

Mission Findings: 

During the mission, the team was able to observe the common use of GIS by the consulted institutions, including ONPC, for the visualization of statistics on risks and occurrences of disasters. In addition, some institutions already regularly use satellite images, for example to analyze burnt areas after forest fires, while universities provide advanced training in geomatics. With regard to disaster risk reduction, space data and technologies are included in a draft DRR strategy, which is currently in the process of being adopted. By becoming an authorized user of the International Charter “Space and Major Disasters” and by benefiting from maps floods in the area of Nabeul in 2018 created by the Copernicus Emergency Management Service (Copernicus EMS), Tunisia is mobilizing relevant international networks and mechanisms to access information products based on satellite data during disasters.

Mission Recommendations: 

The recommendations made by the team aim to further encourage the institutionalization of the use and sharing of satellite data and images through disaster risk management in Tunisia. The recommendations are described in more detail in the corresponding sections of this report and are in short:

Policy and coordination

  • Strengthen the legal framework and collaboration for geospatial information
  • Finalize the project for the creation of a national infrastructure for geographic information (INIG)

Access, availability and sharing of data

  • Create an archive of available satellite images and accelerate their exploitation for disaster management purposes
  • To deepen risk analysis in the territory by expanding and integrating the data repository and the tools used to publish the data more effectively
  • Prepare information for rapid response disaster mapping
  • Strengthen disaster risk reduction through mapping exercises

Capacity-building and institutional strengthening

  • Ensure the presence of adequate human resources
  • Use local and international geomatics training resources for capacity building 

Strengthening early warning

  • Establish a legal framework for early warning
  • Ensure coordinated and cooperative early warning
  • Strengthen emergency response
  • Make field data collection more efficient and accurate
  • Use international mechanisms and regional partnerships to obtain relevant maps and satellite imagery during disasters
AttachmentSize
PDF icon Tunisia TAM - Data sources booklet969.11 KB

Recommended Practice: Land Cover Change Detection through Supervised Classification

English

Teaser Recommended Practice: 

This Recommended Practice aims to (1) conduct a supervised land cover classification in QGIS using the SCP plugin and (2) to conduct change detection analysis. These skills are applicable to a vast range of disasters throughout the entire disaster management cycle. In this example, the remote sensing technique is applied to monitor deforestation in a part of the Amazon rainforest south of Santarém, Pará, in Brazil. However, it can be applied to any other study area. The required inputs are two or more satellite images of the same area at a different point in time. This will result in an output of a table showing the exact change in land cover in number of pixels as well as a visualization of the land cover change in the form of a shapefile.

Related Software: 

Disaster Cycle Phase: 

  • Mitigation
  • Preparedness
  • Recovery & Reconstruction
  • Relief & Response

Main Hazards: 

  • Forest Fire

Test Site: 

Brazil

Context: 

This practice was applied to the Amazon rainforest south of Santarém, Pará, in Brazil between 2015 and 2019 to monitor rainforest deforrestation in that period.

Applicability: 

This method can be applied to any other area of study in which change detection from one landcover type to another is desired.

Ecuador - Institutional Strengthening Mission

As part of the technical advisory support it provides to countries worldwide, UN-SPIDER carried out an Institutional Strengthening Mission to Republic of Ecuador from 8-12 April 2019 upon the request of the government. This activity was jointly organized by the United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs (UNOOSA), through its United Nations Platform for space-based information for disaster management and emergency response (UN-SPIDER) and the National Risk and Emergency Management Service of Ecuador. The Military Geographic Institute of Ecuador, the Agustín Codazzi Geographic Institute of Colombia (IGAC) and the Federal University of Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil supported the mission.

Dates: 

Mon, 08/04/2019 to Fri, 12/04/2019

Host Institution: 

National Risk and Emergency Management Service of Ecuador

Country/Region: 

Main Hazards: 

Mission Team: 

Representatives from UN-SPIDER, the Military Geographic Institute of Ecuador, the Agustín Codazzi Geographic Institute of Colombia and the Federal University of Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. 

Mission Profile: 

The mission was a follow-up activity to the UN-SPIDER Technical Advisory Mission (TAM) conducted in October 2009 at the request of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Commerce and Integration (MRECI), as Ecuador is exposed to a variety of geologic and hydro-meteorological hazards, including many active volcanoes. In addition, it is exposed to climatic events such as El Niño and La Niña.

During the five-day mission, UN-SPIDER carried out a training programme on "Analysis of satellite images to monitor floods, droughts and forest fires". The programme brought together various institutions that were convened by the National Risk and Emergency Management Service. The objective was to train participants in the fundamentals, methods of remote sensing and digital processing of satellite images to obtain useful information for monitoring floods, droughts and forest fires.

Disaster type: 

Participating UN-SPIDER Regional Support Office: 

Peru - Technical Advisory Mission

As part of it advisory support activities, UN-SPIDER is carrying out out a Technical Advisory Mission (TAM) to Peru from 1 to 5 April to evaluate the current and potential use of space-based information in all aspects of disaster management. Based on exchanges with a wide range of stakeholders, UN-SPIDER will provide recommendations as to how to strengthen the use of space-based information in disaster risk management and emergency response in the country.

Dates: 

Mon, 01/04/2019 to Fri, 05/04/2019

Host Institution: 

National Institute of Civil Defense (INDECI) of Peru and National Commission of Aerospace Research and Development of Peru (CONIDA).

Country/Region: 

Mission Team: 

The team is comprised of eight experts from UN-SPIDER; the German Aerospace Centre (DLR); the Argentinian National Space Activities Commission (CONAE); the Mexican Space Agency (AEM); the Agustin Codazzi Geographic Institute of Colombia (IGAC); the Santa Ana Federal University of Brazil; the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) of the United States of America; and the Andean Community (CAN). CONAE, AEM and IGAC are UN-SPIDER Regional Support Offices.

Mission Profile: 

The team had a series of meetings with key stakeholder organizations to take account of the availability of geospatial information, current use of space-derived information, data sharing practices, applications of geospatial information, challenges and constraints, existing capacity and needs, institutional linkages and coordination and applications to strengthen disaster risk reduction and emergency response.

 

Recommended Practice: Burn Severity Mapping

English

Teaser Recommended Practice: 

Wildfires can result in the loss of human life. They also have the ability to influence different ecological processes; since they are responsible for partially/completely removing the vegetation layer (Petropoulos, Griffiths, & Kalivas, 2014). Therefore, it is essential to assess the severity of the impacted area. For this reason, this recommended practice was developed to help contribute in the assessment of areas affected by wildfires. The evaluation of these areas can be carried out using different methods; namely, on the ground and using remote sensing tools. The methodology suggested combines the use of Landsat 8 or Sentinel 2 pre- and post-fire imagery, and the Normalized Burn Ration (NBR) index. The recommended practice was designed specifically to assess large areas that have been impacted by wildfires.

Flowchart Recommended Practices: 

Objective: 

The purpose of this recommended practice is to assist in assessing post-fire burn severity. The methodology applied utilizes the Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR) in pre- and post-fire images; to evaluate the burn severity of the area.

Disaster Cycle Phase: 

  • Recovery & Reconstruction
  • Relief & Response

Main Hazards: 

  • Forest Fire

Test Site: 

Empedrado Commune, province of Talca, Maule region, Chile.

Context: 

The town of Empedrado presents as a vast area of forests, mainly consisting of pine and eucalyptus trees. Empedrado is a third-level administrative division in central Chile, situated in the Maule region. In this region alone, nearly 4000 people had to evacuate due to the forest fires. At the beginning of February, the Chilean government ended the state of emergency that had been enacted in January 2017. Although forest fires are common during summers in Chile, the combination of a long-term drought, and historically high temperatures, ended up causing one of the worst wildfire seasons the country had ever experienced. The forest fires killed 11 people, caused approximately $333 million in damages, destroyed 1610 houses, and devastated many of the plantations in the area.

Applicability: 

Burn severity data and maps can aid in developing emergency rehabilitation and restoration plans, post-fire. The proposed methodology is recommended for assessing the burn severity of large areas that are affected by wildfires. The burn severity can also be used to estimate soil burn severity and the likelihood of future downstream impacts due to flooding, landslides, and soil erosion.

Wildfires: Global Critical Issues

  • Loss of human life and property
  • Air pollution
  • Habitat loss
  • Hydrological regime changes and increased risk of landslides and floods
  • Increased frequency, duration, and severity due to fire suppression methods and climate change

Reference

Petropoulos, G. P., Griffiths, H. M., & Kalivas, D. P. (2014). Quantifying spatial and temporal vegetation recovery dynamics following a wildfire event in a Mediterranean landscape using EO data and GIS. Applied Geography, 50, 120–131.

Recommended Practice: Exposure Mapping

English

Teaser Recommended Practice: 

Mapping the extent of a natural hazard (e.g., assessing areas with a high risk) or disaster is a first step in disaster risk management and emergency response. Subsequently, exposure mapping enables the estimation of the impact of hazards or disasters, for example, regarding the number of affected inhabitants or infrastructure. The following practice shows the use of Quantum GIS to analyze a disaster extent map in combination with auxiliary data such as population or land cover data.

Flowchart Recommended Practices: 

Related Software: 

Objective: 

The objective of this practice is to estimate the exposure of a natural hazard or disaster. As an example, the number of inhabitants affected by a flood event is estimated. The joint use of the flood mask, created by the Recommended Practice: Flood Mapping, and the WorldPop data set constitutes a viable solution to quickly estimate the impact of the flood regarding the population. The proposed methodology is a universal practice which combines a simple approach based on open-source software and free of charge data together with a beforehand created map covering the extend of a natural hazard or disaster.

Disaster Cycle Phase: 

  • Mitigation
  • Preparedness
  • Recovery & Reconstruction
  • Relief & Response

Main Hazards: 

  • Drought
  • Earthquake
  • Extreme Temperature
  • Forest Fire
  • Flood
  • Insect Infestation
  • Mass Movement
  • Pollution
  • Severe Storm
  • Tsunami
  • Volcanic Eruption

Test Site: 

Malawi

Context: 

The practice was applied in the context of the flood event in Malawi in January 2015. Since December 2014, heavy rains affected Malawi causing rivers to overflow. The flooded area in this analysis covered a part of the Nsanje district around Chiromo.

Applicability: 

This practice can be applied globally. Besides of the beforehand created hazard or disaster extent map, the practice does not need specific near real-time data as it is based on population, land cover, or other auxiliary geodata archives. The WorldPop data set provides population data for Africa, Asia as well as Central and South America with a spatial resolution of 100 meters. The Landcover30 data base provides global landcover data with a spatial resolution of about 30 meters.

Assessing variability and long-term trends in burned area by merging multiple satellite fire products

Long term, high quality estimates of burned area are needed for improving both prognostic and diagnostic fire emissions models and for assessing feedbacks between fire and the climate system.

External Contact Person: 

L.Giglio

Email: 

Undefined

Bibliographic reference: 

Giglio, L., Randerson, J. T., Van der Werf, G. R., Kasibhatla, P. S., Collatz, G. J., Morton, D. C., & DeFries, R. S. (2010). Assessing variability and long-term trends in burned area by merging multiple satellite fire products.Biogeosciences7(3).

MODIS Hotspot Validation over Thailand

To ensure

External Contact Person: 

Veerachi Tanpipat, Kiyoshi Honda, and Prayoonyong Nuchaiya

Email: 

iamtanpipat [at] gmail.com
Undefined

Bibliographic reference: 

Tanpipat, V., Honda, K., & Nuchaiya, P. (2009). MODIS hotspot validation over Thailand. Remote Sensing1(4), 1043-1054.

Multi-hazard profile of Sri Lanka (UNDRR)

Data Type: 

hazard

Costs: 

free
English

Spatial Coverage: 

Sri Lanka

Temporal Coverage: 

arch

Data accessibility: 

exportmap
statistic

Disaster Cycle Phase: 

drm

Space-based Information: 

Ground-based Information

Global TerraColor Landsat Mosaic (EVG)

Data Type: 

satdata

Costs: 

nfree
English

Spatial Coverage: 

Global

Temporal Coverage: 

arch

Data accessibility: 

exportdata

File types: 

ECW
Jpeg

Disaster Cycle Phase: 

drm
rr
Screenshot of Global TerraColor Landsat Mosaic (EVG)

Spatial Resolution: 

15.00

Restrictions / Citation of the dataset: 

Some products and formats may only be available upon request. 

Satellites and Sensors: 

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